Advances in Biology, Biotechnology and Genetics
Volume 1 | Issue 1 | Pages 01-13
Journal homepage: http://www.ajournals.com/journals/abbg
Nanobiotechnology based therapies against Cancer: An update
Jamale Fatima 1, Sibhghatulla Shaikh 2, Shazi Shakil 1*, Syed Mohd. Danish Rizvi 2
Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that uses principles from biology, chemistry, physics, and engineering to design and invent nanoscale devices. Nanotechnology holds promise for diagnostic tools and multifunctional products. Nanoscale devices have been argued to deliver therapeutic agents that could fight even against complex diseases like cancer. The nanoparticles will circulate through the body, detect cancer associated molecular changes, assist with imaging, release a therapeutic agent, and then monitor the effectiveness of the intercession. Advancements in nanotechnology have made the early screening of cancer possible. In this review, we have discussed the nanotechnology-based therapies against different cancer types that have stimulated the more recent innovative solutions for early diagnosis and treatment of cancer.
Keywords: Nanotechnology, Nanoparticle, Cancer, Therapeutic agent.
Cancer is a leading cause of death globally. Cancer is a term used to describe a large group of diseases that are characterized by a cellular malfunction. Current anticancer agents do not greatly differentiate between cancerous and normal cells, leading to systemic toxicity and adverse effects. Healthy cells are programmed to “know what to do and when to do”. However, cancerous cell do not have programming and therefore these cells grow indefinitely. Additionally, cancer is often diagnosed and treated too late, when the cancer cells have already invaded and metastasized into other parts of the body. At the time of clinical presentation more than 60% of patients with breast, lung, colon, prostate, and ovarian cancers are unseen or overt metastatic colonies (Menon and Jacobs, 2000).
In 2008, approximately 12.7 million cancer cases were reported, causing approximately 7.6 million cancer deaths, out of which 64% of the deaths were reported from economically developing countries (Ferlay et al., 2010). Three most common cancers among women are breast cancer, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. Survival of these cancer patients largely depends on early detection followed by effective therapy. Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary research field developed with combination of chemistry, engineering, biology, and medicine. It has various useful applications in cancer biology, such as early detection of tumors, discovery of cancer biomarkers, and development of novel treatments (Siegel et al., 2013).
Cancer related examples of Nanodevices include quantum dots (QDs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), paramagnetic NPs, liposomes, gold NPs, magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents for intraoperative imaging and a novel NP-based method for high-specificity detection of DNA and protein. TheseNanocarriers offer many advantages over free drugs. They protect the drug from premature degradation, prevent drugs from prematurely interacting with the biological environment, enhance absorption of the drugs into a selected tissue (for example, solid tumour), control the pharmacokinetic and drug tissue distribution profile, and improve intracellular penetration (Alexis et al., 2010).
2. Nanoparticles Show Big Promise in Fight against Cancer
Cancer can be detected conventionally by observing physical growth or changes in the concerned organ, i.e., by using X-rays or Computed Tomography scans followed by biopsy through cell culture. Disadvantage of these conventional methods is that they are time consuming and less sensitivity (Cho et al., 2008).
Nanotechnology has the prospective to construct many new materials and devices with a vast range of applications, such as in electronics, medicine, biomaterials and energy production. On the other hand, nanotechnology raises many of the same issues as with any introduction of new skill, including concerns about the toxicity and environmental impact of nanomaterials, and their possible effects on wide-reaching economics. The use of nanodevices as drug delivery systems for chemotherapeutic agents can improve the overall pharmacological properties of commonly used drugs in chemotherapy. Usually unmodified drugs are susceptible to opsonisation results in their low accumulation at target site.Nanocarriers discovered thus far include flying carpet, lipid-based carriers include both liposomes and micelles, dendrimers, carbon nanotube are explained as below.
A recent nanocarrier “Flying carpet” is a graphene which is a two-dimensional sheet of carbon that is only one atom thick. New technique to deliver a drug by conjugating onto a graphene sheet against cancerous cell.
In 1965, the foremost closed bilayer phospholipids systems, called liposomes, were described and soon were proposed as drug delivery systems. A physiological nature of lipids to form a bilayer which based on hydrophobic interactions in regular parallel packing, with the hydrophilic head groups positioned inwards the aqueous environment. Hydrophobic Drugs can be carried in the hydrophobic domains of the lipid bilayer and Hydrophilic drugs can be encapsulated in the inner aqueous phase. Many of liposomes like 1, 2-distearoyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1, 2-distearoylsn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine, hydrogenated phosphatidyl choline are made from human body and is approved by FDA. The physiological properties of liposomes have an advantage over other nanocarriers that it used to carry very potent drugs due to their low encapsulated load, requires much controlled synthesis and additional chemical modification..
Quantum dots are nanometer size fluorescent carrier having an optical property that makes them suitable for diagnosis of cancer cells. They offer potential advantages in Drug targeting and in vivo bioimaging. Dendrimer are nano-sized structure consisting of tree-like arms or branches and symmetrical molecules. Wide ranges of bioactive molecules are conjugated to the surface of a dendrimer or encapsulate them as guest molecules within void spaces. The advantage of using dendrimer is to provide a highly versatile and potentially extremely powerful technological platform for drug delivery to a cancerous cell targeting .
A carbon nanotube (CNT) is a minuscule cylindrical carbon structure that has hexagonal graphite molecules attached at the boundaries .It possesses both chemical and mechanical properties that exceed than other nanoparticle, which makes them choose in drug targeting . The Biodistribution of water-soluble CNTs in a body are compatible with body fluids that show no side effects or mortality.
3.Nanoparticle-assisted combination therapies for cancer treatment
3.1. Flying carpet technique for lung cancer
A team of an international researcher of North Carolina State University had used a technique to deliver an anticancer drug sequentially to cancerous cell. Two drugs are targeted to distinct part of a cell where it will be most efficacious to diseased cell. Researcher found that TRAIL (TNF-alpha-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand) i.e., an anticancerous protein which serve as target for a drug molecule. In this study, the researchers attached two drugs-TRAIL and doxorubicin-onto graphene strips. These drug-rich graphene strips are introduced into the bloodstream in solution, and then travel through the bloodstream like nanoscale flying carpets. The technique was found to perform better than either drug in isolation when tested in a mouse model targeting a human lung cancer tumor (Shipman., 2015).
3.2. Liposome Technology
British hematologist Alec D Bangham (Torchilin, 2005) first described liposomes in 1961. A liposome is an artificially prepared vesicle composed of a lipid bilayer. Figure 1 shows liposomes used for anticancer drug therapy.
Figure 1. Liposome used in therapeutics
These liposomes can be synthesized from cholesterols, non-toxic surfactants, sphingolipids, glycolipids, long chain fatty acids and even membrane proteins. For the treatment of metastatic breast cancer and Kaposi’s sarcoma Stealth liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil), liposomal doxorubicin (Myocet), and liposomal daunorubicin (DaunoXome) have been approved (Cattel et al., 2003; Paliwal et al., 2010). For drug delivery system, liposomes are generated from phospholipids. This makes them ideal candidates for drug delivery, as they are nontoxic and biodegradable. Liposomes can accommodate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs by storing them in either their internal aqueous core or their phospholipid bilayer, respectively. An important physical aspect associated with the clinical success of liposome-based drugs is the overall size of the nanocarrier. Liposomes should have size of ∼50–100 nm in diameter for efficient delivery of chemotherapeutics. This lower-size limit prevents these predominately-intravenous based drugs from randomly penetrating normal vessel walls while in circulation.
3.1.1. The treatment of Breast Cancer using liposomes
Liposome technology and micelles are expected to make drug targeting in cancer therapy. These nanocarriers are surface coated with PEG to increase the circulation and better accumulation of drug at tumor site (Gabizon et al., 2003).Breast cancer in particular has been the focus of many studies involving liposome-based chemotherapeutics. This is in part due to the clinical success of various drugs such as Doxil, which is a liposomal formulation currently used to treat recurrent breast cancer (Charrois et al., 2004; Tagamiet al., 2011 ). Doxil is a liposomal preparation composed of the relatively high phase-transition temperature phospholipid hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol (Lee et al., 2008; Tolhurst et al., 2011) resulting in a stable drug delivery system with enhanced bilayer rigidity. The encapsulation of doxorubicin within liposomes significantly decreases the cardiotoxicity that commonly results from the use of unencapsulated drug anthracyclines by decreasing the amount of the drug being delivered to the heart (Cukierman et al., 2010). Thus, patients can receive much higher doses of the chemotherapeutic in the liposomal formulation compared to unencapsulated drugs, thereby allowing tumor tissue to potentially be exposed to a lethal dose of the drug while minimizing deleterious side effects.
Liposome-based drugs of the appropriate size retain the ability to extravagate out of circulation at tumor sites also, various challenges remain involving release of the encapsulated drug from the nanocarriers. Therefore, liposomes have achieved passive targeting of solid tumors through enhanced vascular permeability, which is greatly augmented by hyperthermia. The temperature-sensitive liposomes are designed to be stable at the normal physiological temperature of 37◦C but become significantly destabilized at slightly higher temperatures. Thus, the use of temperature-sensitive liposomes to deliver encapsulated chemotherapeutics to solid tumors such as breast cancer is an area of promising research, and many successful constructs have previously been reported (Wang et al., 2005).
3.1.2. The treatment of ovarian cancer using pegylated liposomes
Ovarian cancer is the ninth most common cancer among women, excluding non-melanoma skin cancers. It ranks fifth in cancer deaths among women, accounting for more deaths than any other cancer of the female reproductive system. The standard management of Ovarian Cancer patients includes surgery for staging and optimal cytoreduction (followed by a platinum/taxane chemotherapy combination (Naumann et al., 2010; Ledermann et al., 2012). Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) is a formulation of doxorubicin in poly ethylene glycol coated (stealth) liposomes with a prolonged circulation time and unique toxicity profile (Rose, 2004). It was approved by food drug and administration (USA) in 1999 for treatment of ovarian cancer.
The doxorubicin molecules in PLD are encapsulated in a bilayer sphere of lipids. This vesicle is then surrounded by a dense layer of PEG hence the name pegylated liposomal doxorubicin PLD. PLD is associated with a number of adverse effects. The first adverse effect seen is an acute hypersensitivity reaction. This reaction is characterized by flushing, facial edema, headache, back pain, rigors, acneiform eruptions, paronychia, xerosis, fissures, hyper pigmentation, alterations in hair growth and telangiectasia (Nowara and Huszno, 2013).
3.2.Multicolour quantum dots
Nanotechnology is a promising platform in cancer molecular imaging. Quantum dots (QDs) acquire unique optical and electronic characteristics that are being intensively studied as a novel probe for biomedical imaging both in vitro and in vivo. Quantum dots are a nanocrystal made of semiconductor materials that are small enough to display quantum mechanical properties, specifically its excitons are confined in all 3D. The electronic properties of these materials are intermediate between those of bulk semiconductors and of discrete molecules,Quantum dots range from 2 nm to 10 nm in diameter and containing group elements II to VI or III to V. Quantum dots offer great advantages over traditional organic fluorescent dyes and present a number of beneficial characteristics for spectroscopy, such as high fluorescence intensity, long lifetime and good resistance to photobleaching simultaneous cancer molecular imaging and targeted therapy ( Cheng et al., 2008; Menjoge et al., 2010).
3.2.1. Multicolour quantum dots in treatment of breast cancer
Hereditary breast cancer is commonly due to an inherited mutation in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. In normal cells, these genes help preventing cancer by making proteins that keep the cells away from growing abnormally. An inherited mutated copy of either gene from a parent raises the risk of developing breast cancer during the lifetime of a child. Hence, development of therapeutic techniques for breast cancer biomarkers is highly important for the treatment of breast cancer. The human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family is one of the most extensively investigated growth receptor families (Aaronson, 1999). Overexpression/amplification of the HER2 receptor has been identified in a cancer prostate (Mark et al., 1999). Since anti-HER-2 antibodies inhibit the growth of HER-2-overexpressing breast cancer cells, it is considered the most effective therapy in HER-2-positive breast cancer patients, and nowadays it is being widely employed by generating various recombinant monoclonal antibodies like trastuzumab (Liberato et al., 2007; Hudis et al., 2007). Immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization used to be considered the most widely employed techniques for detecting HER-2 in breast cancer patients (Jimenez et al., 2000), but due to certain limitations of these two techniques, HER-2 detection using QDs based fluorescent probes has attracted much attention in recent times. The applicability of QDs for detecting breast cancer biomarker HER-2 on the surface of breast cancer SK-BR-3 cells utilizing QD-535 and QD-630 has been proved (Li-Shishido et al., 2006; Tada et al., 2007; Takeda et al., 2008).
Virus-based NPs are also becoming popular these days as diagnostic techniques for the detection of tumors in the early stage. Work in this direction was initiated by attaching QDs to HER-2 specific M13 bacteriophage antibodies for the detection of cancer lesions and cellular imaging, and by conjugating these HER-2 specific antibodies with end coat proteins of the phage to create HER-2 specific monoclonal antibodies (Chu et al., 2010).
3.2.2. Multicolour quantum dots in treatment of ovarian cancer
Ovarian cancer is the second most-common malignancy of the female genital tract, and CA125 (carcinoma antigen 125) is an epithelial antigen that has been used as a useful tumor marker in the detection and therapy of ovarian cancer. In more than 80% of non-mucinous ovarian carcinomas, CA125 is a mucinous glycoprotein that is over expressed (Schultes and Whiteside, 2003), and the production of CA125 is correlated with ovarian cancer activity (Hui-Zhi et al., 2004) for the design and delivery of a tumor-targeted, pH-responsive quantum dot-mucin aptamer-doxorubicin conjugate for the, QD was conjugated with a DNA aptamer .The aptamer was specific for mutated mucin1 to achieve active targeting for ovarian carcinoma cell. Doxorubicin was attached to QD via a pH-sensitive hydrazone bond in order to provide the stability of the complex in systemic circulation and drug release in acidic environment inside cancer cells (Savla et al., 2005).
3.2.3. Multicolour quantum dots in treatment of prostate cancer
Cancer that forms in tissues of the prostate i.e. a gland in the male reproductive system found below the bladder and in front of the rectum. Prostate cancer usually occurs in older men. Estimated new cases and deaths from prostate cancer in the United States in 2013 (New cases: 238,590 and Deaths: 29,720). Currently chemotherapy is a preferred modality in the treatment of prostate cancer (Ryan et al., 2011) for example; docetaxel and mitoxantrone are considered first-line chemotherapeutic options in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) (deBono et al., 2010). Nevertheless, modest drug response and significant toxicity by conventional methods of administration limit their efficacy. For these issues, targeted cancer therapies offer significant therapeutic benefits over existing chemotherapy regimens since the drug is preferentially delivered to the cancer tissue. The side effects associated with chemotherapy can be minimized by targeted drug delivery. NPs have large flexibility in engineering design with sustained-release characteristics are the most promising candidates as drug delivery carriers. Over past a few years, researchers have developed different types of NPs for treatment of cancer (Peer et al., 2007; Mechels et al., 2006).
The development of bioconjugated QD probes suitable for in vivo targeting and imaging of human prostate cancer cells growing in mice. The new class of QD conjugates contains an amphiphilic triblock copolymer for in vivo protection, targeting-ligands for tumor antigen recognition and multiple PEG molecules for improved biocompatibility and circulation. Because of their structural diversity and novel chemical properties, diblock – and triblock copolymers have been used in drug delivery as well as in soft nanolithography (spontaneous assembly of polymer films into periodic nanoscale domains (Allen et al., 1999; Ludwig et al., 2003; Savic et al., 2003).
3.2.4. Multicolour quantum dots in treatment of colorectal cancer
Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths after lung cancer, and is the only major cancer to affect men and women essentially equally (Cross et al., 2010) Globally more than 1 million people get colorectal cancer every year (Lozano, 2012). Fluorescence detection technology using multifunctional magnetic beads has been reported to trace circulating tumor cells (Eastman et al., 2006; Hsieh et al., 2011; Liandris et al., 2011). QD-nanoprobe was developed for the detection of Cytokeratin19 protein for in vivo colorectal cancer molecular targeting. QDs with a maximum emission wavelength of 655 nm were coated with streptavidin and functionalized with the biotinylated-CK19-antibody (Gazouli et al., 2013). This technique provides a low cost, simple, and responsive means of cancerous cell recognition that can be easily adjusted for any other protein target.
3.3. Dendrimers in cancer therapeutics and detection
The generation of particular systems with a specific shape and size plays a crucial role in the development of modern drug delivery systems. Dendrimers are unique synthetic macromolecules of nanometer dimensions with a highly branched structure and globular shape (Menjoge et al., 2005; Baker, 2009). Dendrimers have three components: an initiator core, branches, and terminal functional groups. Two major strategies for synthesizing dendrimers are Divergent and Convergent methods.
These methods differ in their direction of synthesis, either outwards from the core or inwardly toward the core, respectively. The initiator core is in the heart of the molecule, and branches extend outward from it. The monomers attached to the core, are called first generation monomers and two-second generation monomers are attached to the each of the first generation monomers. Successive generations are formed in this same manner; two monomers are attached to the monomer from the previous generation.
Dendrimers conjugated to chemotherapeutic agents or genetic therapeutics have also been reported to enter tumors. Current studies show that cisplatin encapsulated in dendrimer polymers has increased efficacy and is less toxic (Dhar et al., 2008; Kirkpatrick et al., 2011). Dendrimers conjugated to fluorochrome have been shown to enter the cells and are constructed in a manner that outer portion is cleaved by either enzymes or light induced catalysis (Barker et al., 1997).This approach allows to controlled digestion of polymer to release a drug at cancerous sites.
In addition, target tumor dendrimers have been constructed as differentiated block co-polymers where the outer portions of the molecule may be digested with either enzyme or light-induced catalysis. This allows the controlled degradation of the polymer to release therapeutics at the disease site and could provide a mechanism for an external trigger to release the therapeutic agents (Urdea et al., 1993).
3.3.1. Dendrimer in the treatment of breast cancer
A broad majority of dendrimer and gold nanoparticle combinations are realized by the enclosure of gold into poly dendrons in aqueous solutions. Dendrimer are used as templates, NPs are generally to be found within the dendritic arms, and are called: dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles (DENs), dendrimer-gold nanocomposites, dendrimer-passivated. Dendrimer-based gold NPs have been used for the detection of breast cancer. As a dual-modality contrast agent for magnetic resonance, computed tomography have reported excellent imaging of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The surface of the poly (amido amine) dendrimers can be modified with different peripheral functional groups that allow them to be used in various biomedical applications, such as conjugating chelating agents for magnetic resonance contrast agents or for the delivery of drugs and nucleic acids (Chandrasekhar et al., 2007; Cheng et al., 2008; Menjoge et al., 2010).
These multifunctional dendrimers show potential future in various pharmaceutical applications as they acquire unique properties, such as high degree of branching, multivalency, globular architecture and well-defined molecular weight (Esfand and Tomalia, 2001).
3.3.2. Dendrimers in the treatment of ovarian cancer
Ovarian cancer cells consistently and uniformly over express folate receptors as much as two orders of magnitude higher relative to normal, healthy ovarian epithelial cells. The folate receptor alpha (FRα) is a glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol-linked protein that is over expressed in several epithelial malignancies, including ovarian cancers (Low et al., 2009). Expression of FRα in normal tissues is restricted to the apical surfaces of polarized epithelial cells (Kalli et al., 2008), where it is not exposed to the blood stream. Unlike the more ubiquitously expressed reduced folate carrier and proton-coupled folate transporter that regulate folate homeostasis, FRα allows internalization of folic acid that has been conjugated to low molecular weight compounds, proteins, or NPs (Salazar et al., 2007). This property has implications for targeting of chemotherapeutic drugs, cytotoxic viruses, or imaging agents to FRα-expressing cells. FRα is an attractive candidate for targeted biologic therapy of ovarian cancer (Salazar et al., 2007; Reddy et al., 2005).
3.4. Carbon nanotubes ( A Bullet in the Fight against Cancer
These cylindrical carbon molecules have unusual properties, which are valuable for nanotechnology, electronics, optics and other fields of materials science and technology. These CNTs are the member of fullerene structure family. CNTs are classified as single walled nanotube (SWNT) and multi-walled nanotube (MWNT) (Figure2). At the time of new discoveries involving NPs, CNTs of due to scientific interest have tremendous strength and can immobilize therapeutic molecules such as antibodies, drugs or protein in their hollow cavity or at their surface. These immobilized molecules are able to penetrating mammalian cell membranes that make them ideal for drug delivery vehicles. It has also been shown that ssDNA can be attached to a nanotube, which can then be successfully transferred inside a cell (Shim et al., 2002; Lin et al., 2004; Pantarotto et al., 2004; Hampel et al., 2008).
Figure 2. A Single walled nanotube and a multi walled nanotube
SWNT have shown in tumor-targeted accumulation in mammals and exhibit biocompatibility, excretion, and little toxicity. SWNTs can effectively carry various biomolecules into cells, together with drugs (Bianco et al., 2005; Feazell et al., 2007; Liu et al., 2007), peptide (Pantarotto et al., 2004) proteins (Kam et al., 2005), small interfering RNA (Liu et al., 2005; Liu et al., 2007), and plasmid DNA (Liu et al., 2005) via endocytosis (Kam et al., 2006). The intrinsic near-IR light absorption property of CNTs releases significant heat and enhances the thermal destruction of cells (Kam et al., 2005), whereas their photoluminescence property has been used for in vitro cell imaging and probing (Welsher et al., 2008).
Single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) can be surface functionalised by covalent or noncovalent chemical reactions. In covalent method, the most common approach can be done by oxidation reaction whereas in noncovalent method SWCNTs can be coated with amphiphilic surfactant molecules or polymers (Chenet al., 2010). As SWCNTs are hydrophobic in nature, they agglomerate in the presence of salts, and thus cannot be used for medicinal application due to high level of salt concentration. To overcome CNTs can be modified by conjugating with a hydrophilic polymer such as PEG to oxidized SWCNTs, yielding SWCNT–polymer conjugates which are stable in biological environments (Yoo et al., 2004; Cheng et al., 2008; Bottini et al., 2011).
3.4.1. CNT therapeutics in prostate cancer detection and therapeutics
Prostate cancer is a foremost public health issue as the most commonly diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of cancer deaths among American men. Prostate-Specific Antigen, a 28-kDa glycoprotein produced by the prostate gland and a serine protease enzyme, has been used as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer (Lilja et al., 2008). Osteopontin (OPN) was named for its function as a bridge between cells and mineral. OPN is a proinflammatory cytokine that regulates bone homeostasis through its effects on osteoclast function. OPN expression has been shown to enhance the invasive potential of cancer cells and plays an important role in cancer progression (Thalmann et al., 1999). OPN is being investigated both as a therapeutic target and as a biomarker for diseases such as arthritis and cancer (Morimoto et al., 2010).
OPN is thought to play a role in the metastatic process and development of metastatic disease correlates with increased serum levels of OPN. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for OPN, such as the 23C mAb ( anti-Osteopontin mAbs), represent promising therapeutic and diagnostic agents for prostate cancer (Anborgh et al., 2009; Fan et al., 2008; Heller et al., 2008).This murine 23CmAb recognise consensus sequence within osteopontin and binds to it. CNT field effect transistors provide a unique transduction platform for prostate cancer detection (Chen et al., 2004; Staii et al., 2005; Allen et al., 2007). These transistors are functionalised by coupling with 23CmAb to form a hybrid nanostructure that detects prostate cancer.
3.4.2. CNT therapy for breast cancer detection and their therapeutics
SWNTs are exhibit unique structural, mechanical, electrical, and optical properties that are promising for various biological and biomedical applications, as biosensors. Biosensors based on microsomal cytochrome P450 and nanostructure with multi-walled carbon-nanotubes to electrochemically detect is drugs being used in the treatment of breast-cancer by taking advantage of the electrical and electrochemical properties CNTs. This co-integrated system allows good selectivity, accuracy, sensitivity and low cost equipment (Chen et al., 2003).
Nanodiamonds are another addition to carbon family carrying both properties of diamond and NPS. They have truncated octahedral configuration of 2 to 8 nm in diameter. The striking feature of nanodiamond that is non-toxic and biocompatible as it is most requiring characteristics in field of cancer therapy (Liu et al., 2009). These nanodiamonds can be attached to various anticancer agents via covalent and noncovalent bonds.
3.5.1. Nanodiamond in treatment of breast and lung cancer
Doxorubicin the most commonly used drug in breast cancer was conjugated with nanodiamond to create a complex. This complex binds to target cell and destroys it. It has been shown that unmodified doxorubicin has 10 times less circulation half time than modified doxorubicin (Chow et al., 2011). Nanodiamonds tend to spread in an atmosphere during manufacturing process causing environmental pollution. Therefore, non-toxicity of nanodiamonds makes choice for therapeutic application in lung cancer as well (Wanget al., 2010).
Over the past 150 years, many novel and innovative techniques have been developed in order to treat cancer. These techniques range from surgical removal to X-ray irradiation to system wide flooding with anticancer agents. Though, it has undesirable side effects to that patient as damaging tissue that distress to health. Now at last there is hope for a cure that is effective and can be made it safe. Through advanced understanding and application of functional nonmaterials, cellular targeting has seen promising result. As Nanotechnology has already begun to have a signiﬁcant impact on the treatment of patients by improving major challenges for the future including optimization of design and engineering of cancer targeted materials. The development of NPs drug delivery systems is expected to have a big impact on the clinical approaches for cancer therapy.
The financial support provided by the Department of Science & Technology (DST), New Delhi, India, Grant No. IF130056 to Shaikh S is deeply acknowledged. The authors extend sincere thanks to all of the staff of Integral University, Lucknow, INDIA for co-operation.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
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